We are told most satellites orbit the Earth at altitudes of over km to avoid atmospheric drag, with a few circling in Medium Earth Orbit which goes up to 35,km! As you can see, all three objects above are in the seriously ferocious hot zone.
April 23, at 1: Choosing end dates is always fraught with subjectivity. Fit the whole period.
Of course Nic Lewis incoparated the solar forcing! Beginning around and ending around would more properly cancel solar activity changes. HAS You should do as frankclimate suggests, read the stuff before you proclaim on it. To help a couple of quotes from what you would have read: They reported that simply subtracting the first decade from the last yielded similar results.
This method is arguably more robust than using regression. There is evidence including from Marvel et al. Implications for climate sensitivity from the response to individual forcings.
Nature Climate Change, 6 4 Small global-mean cooling due to volcanic radiative forcing. Climate Dynamics, 47 12 Jim D Yes, I thought this was talking about work Lewis did himself, as in Lewis and Curry, not on what he was proclaiming about other people. My comment referred to Lewis and Curry.
HAS April 23, at 9: They explicitly deal with the issues you opine on eg volcanos and wider forcing issues. I could recommend a good PDF reader if you are struggling with the technology to read the papers. Jim D Sorry, yes, my mistake. Lewis and Curry did not consider solar variations, so it was fair to point that out in this context.
HAS April 23, at Jim D April 23, at For them the uncertainty was just internal variation. They have to assume that the forcing and ocean cycles at some time in the foggy past is the same as at a more recent time — big assumption, but they do make brave efforts at that in those studies including LC For TSI their argument is less than convincing because we know the end for LC14 was in a solar sunspot lull and a long minimum, while the earlier periods were not, which is the point that I brought up.
And that is before even getting started on knowing the ocean heat content for delta Q in the distant past. There is so much uncertainty beyond what Dessler referred to. HAS April 24, at 1: If you spent more time on receive than send you would have appreciated this issue from my comment about what happened in Dessler when they did 20 years at each end rather than Jim D April 24, at 7: There is less uncertainty in the Dessler case yet still a large spread.
Those periods also correspond to locally warmer perturbations, no surprise. HAS April 24, at 8: Volcanic forcing efficacy, relative to AR5 forcing estimates, appears to be substantially below unity, and may differ according to the location and type of eruption.
Moreover, prior to the satellite post era there are considerable uncertainties regarding the magnitude of volcanic eruptions and resulting forcing. Therefore, accurate sensitivity estimation requires estimated volcanic forcing to be matched between the base and final period, and relatively low.
Likewise, initial and final periods should be well matched regarding the influence of the principal sources of interannual and multidecadal internal variability, notably ENSO and Atlantic multidecadal variability. Jim D April 25, at 1: He disturbingly ignores that new work completely in LCScience fiction news with a science review plus forthcoming UK Science Fact and Science Fiction book releases for the Autumn , also Eurocon / Worldcon fandom, SF author & book trade news.
The increasingly corroborated atmospheric mass pressure (gravity) explanation for variances in planetary temperatures – which precludes a significant role for CO2 concentration changes – has now advanced from peer-reviewed scientific journals to university-level textbooks.
The “adiabatic. “Our new results show a significant change in the surface mass balance (from snowfall) during the twentieth century. The largest contribution is from the Antarctic Peninsula, where the annual average snowfall during the first decade of the 21st century is 10% higher than at the same period in the 19th century.”.
The current concept of the moon states that it is a solid spherical object which orbits the Earth every days at an average distance of ,km and rotates on its axis anti-clockwise (viewed from the northern hemisphere) at km/hr or once every days. Potassium-argon ‘dates’ of recent Mt.
Ngauruhoe lava flows. As you can see from the ‘dates’ in the above table the lava flows that were less than 55 years old were given dates from , years to million plus or minus 20 thousand years.
Simple Experimental Demonstration that Cool Objects Can Make Warm Objects Warmer Still August 26th, by Roy W.
Spencer, Ph. D.