In antiquity, the Great Pyramid of Giza the only wonder from the original list still standingthe statue of Zeus at Olympia, the Colossus of Rhodes a new gigantic, version of which is being built todayand others were among the occupants of the list.
Download this page in PDF format Figure 1: Questions posed as the Act took shape and came into effect proved tenacious, occasioning extensive debate and indicating differences that were not to be eased, at least for anti-vivisectionists, for decades to come.
Amongst the many questions: What is the role of anesthesia in assessing pain? Are experiments under anesthesia still cruel? What kinds of animals require or deserve protection?
Should an inspection system exist? Who can be an inspector? In answering questions like these, experimental science approached vivisection as a vitally modern scientific method that generated essential scientific knowledge.
Anti-vivisectionists, however, answered such questions very differently. The Passage of the Act In Maytwo draft bills to regulate the use of living animals in scientific experiments were presented in the Houses of Parliamentone to the House of Lords and one to the Commons.
The first was presented to the House of Lords on 4 May It had been pulled together through the efforts of Charles Darwin, Thomas Huxley, and John Burdon Sanderson, a leading physiologist and one of the few scientists in England then regularly using living animals in his research.
Licenses for painful experiments undertaken without anesthesia could also be granted by the Home Secretary on several grounds: Neither the Henniker nor the Playfair draft Bill passed into law. Controversial, representing diverse interests, and introduced by private members late in the Parliamentary session, the stand-off created by the Bills led to the establishment of a Royal Commission, the formation of the first formal anti-vivisection societies, and in due course the establishment of the powerful medical lobbying group, the Association for the Advancement of Medicine by Research AAMR.
The historian Richard D.
Certainly, the legislation that received Royal Assent on 15 August brought together many of the key provisions outlined in the Henniker and Playfair Bills.
The Home Secretary oversaw all licensing of experiments on living vertebrate animals, as well as the registering and periodical inspection of all premises for experimentation. Licenses were valid for one year and required the support of a president of one of eleven named medical or scientific bodies and a professor of medicine or medical science.
Scientists could be granted licenses for experiments conducted without anaesthesia or for experiments conducted for demonstration purposes with anaesthesia under the same terms. Experiments were to have a medically useful end.
No experiments were permitted before the public or for the purpose of improving manual dexterity. Experiments on dogs, cats, horses, mules and asses could be conducted without anaesthesia if the necessity of these animals to the success of the experiment could be shown.
Curare, a substance that immobilized animals without de-sensitizing their nerves, was not defined as an anaesthetic under the Act. Penalties imposed for improper licensing were relatively mild: All prosecutions under the Act required the written permission of the Home Secretary.
The Act, and the practices it regulated, continued to generate questions that engaged ethical, political, scientific, and legal expertise, and yielded profoundly different, often contingent, answers for the groups involved. The differences between research and demonstration, for example, were critical both for medical scientists and anti-vivisectionists.
What is the purpose of demonstration in experimental physiology? Is it necessary to medical teaching? Anti-vivisectionists argued that vivisection for demonstration purposes was immoral for its potentially coarsening effect on lay and student audiences, a coarsening that could also yield an increase in the number of vivisections performed.
The neat distinction between demonstration and research encoded in this anti-vivisection definition, however, belied the medical and scientific contention that experimentation by its nature is difficult to define.
How could science distinguish between teaching demonstration and advancing knowledge? What counted as established knowledge in an emerging discipline? Such concerns about scientific demonstrations had deep roots in the larger Victorian animal welfare movement, and were at the center of the first attempts to control experimental vivisection.
Inanimal welfare advocates had publicly exposed the routine vivisection of horses, aimed at improving the manual dexterity of students, at the prestigious veterinary college in Alfort, Franceand called for the abolition of such teaching demonstrations in England.
Similarly, concerns about animal pain, ranging from how to identify and classify it and whether it was ever permissible to inflict it at all, had a long history in both animal welfare and medical science.Civil Rights Argumentative Essay About Same Sex Marriage. This Argumentative essay will discuss the argument of same sex marriage.
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Animal rights is the idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own lives and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings..
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