Copyright Clayton E. Cramer All Rights Reserved. Electronic redistribution is permitted as long as no alterations are made to the text and this notice appears at the beginning. Print reproduction or for profit use is not authorized without permission from the author.
Their numbers have grown exponentially over the past century and now stand at hundreds of thousands nationwide. Yet the dissident English colonists who framed the United States Constitution would have seen this modern 'police state' as alien to their foremost principles. Under the criminal justice model known to the Framers, professional police officers were unknown.
At the time of the Constitution 's ratification, the office of sheriff was an appointed position, and constables were either elected or drafted from the community to serve without pay. The courts of that period were venues for private litigation — whether civil or criminal — and the state was rarely a party.
Professional police as we know them today originated in American cities during the second quarter of the nineteenth century, when municipal governments drafted citizens to maintain order. The modern police-driven model of law enforcement helps sustain a playing field that is fundamentally uneven for different players upon it.
Modern police act as an army of assistants for state prosecutors and gather evidence solely with an eye toward the state's interests. Police seal off crime scenes from the purview of defense investigators, act as witnesses of convenience for the state in courts of law, and instigate a substantial amount of criminal activity under the guise of crime fighting.
Additionally, police enforce social class norms and act as tools of empowerment for favored interest groups to the disadvantage of others. They conducted their investigations in the manner of neighborhood sleuths, dispersing throughout the community to question people about their knowledge of crimes.
In the early s, grand jurors were sometimes called upon to make arrests in cases where suspects were armed and in large numbers. And when called upon to enforce the laws of the state, citizens were to respond "not faintly and with lagging steps, but honestly and bravely and with whatever implements and facilities [were] convenient and at hand.The Second Amendment (Amendment II) to the United States Constitution protects the right of the people to keep and bear arms and was adopted on December 15, as part of the Bill of Rights.
The Supreme Court ruled in the Heller decision that the right belongs to individuals in their homes for self-defense. while also ruling that the right is not unlimited and does not preclude the. The Second Amendment, the Founders and Original Intent.
The original intent of the second amendment was to prevent the national government from infringing on people’s right to keep and bear arms. What are some of the complaints against the verbiage of the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution? Why was the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution established? How. In keeping with the intent and purpose of the Bill of Rights both of declaring individual rights and proscribing the powers of the national government, the use and meaning of the term "Militia" in the Second Amendment, which needs to be "well regulated," helps explain what "well regulated" meant. The Second Amendment (Amendment II) to the United States Constitution protects the right of the people to keep and bear arms and was adopted on December 15, as part of the Bill of Rights.
by Dan Zimmerman | Sep 05, | comments. Two items to add to your excellent essay, though. Let’s start with the specific language of the Second Amendment, then intent and finally the reasons for a Biil of Rights. The original intent of the second amendment was to prevent the national government from infringing on people’s right to keep and bear arms.
What are some of the complaints against the verbiage of the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution? Why was the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution established? How. That anomalous result can be avoided by adding five words to the text of the Second Amendment to make it unambiguously conform to the original intent of its draftsmen.
As so amended, it would read. So as you can see, after the adoption of the Second Amendment into the U.S. Constitution in , the federal government decided to go one step further and create a law requiring that all men own and have ready a military gun in case they were called to service to defend their country.
Gun Rights and Reconstruction: Charles Lane, author of The Day Freedom Died: The Colfax Massacre, the Supreme Court and the Betrayal of Reconstruction, writes in today's Washington Post about the import of Reconstruction for understanding the extent to which the Constitution protects gun ownership..
During oral arguments on Tuesday, the justices debated what the framers of the Second Amendment.