On a November day inin Auvergne, France, Pope Urban II gave one of the most important speeches in world history as he presided over an assembly of important clergymen and officials of the Catholic Church.
Siege of Edessa After the First Crusade and the minor Crusade ofthere were three crusader states established in the east: A fourth, the County of Tripoliwas established in Edessa was the most northerly of these, and also the weakest and least populated; as such, it was subject to frequent attacks from the surrounding Muslim states ruled by the OrtoqidsDanishmends and Seljuq Turks.
Baldwin and Joscelin were both captured a second time inand although Edessa recovered somewhat after the Battle of Azaz inJoscelin was killed in battle in Joscelin had also quarreled with the Count of Tripoli and the Prince of Antioch, leaving Edessa with no powerful allies.
Zengi, already seeking to take advantage of Fulk's death inhurried north to besiege Edessawhich fell to him after a month on 24 December Manasses of HiergesPhilip of Milly and others were sent from Jerusalem to assist, but arrived too late. Joscelin II continued to rule the remnants of the county from Turbesselbut little by little the rest of the territory was captured by Muslims or sold to the Byzantines.
Zengi himself was praised throughout Islam as "defender of the faith" and al-Malik al-Mansur, "the victorious king". He did not pursue an attack on the remaining territory of Edessa, or the Principality of Antioch, as was feared. Events in Mosul compelled him to return home, and he once again set his sights on Damascus.
However, he was assassinated by a slave in and was succeeded in Aleppo by his son Nur ad-Din. Quantum praedecessores The news of the fall of Edessa was brought back to Europe first by pilgrims early inand then by embassies from Antioch, Jerusalem and Armenia.
Louis VII had also been considering a new expedition independently of the Pope, which he announced to his Christmas court at Bourges in It is debatable whether Louis was planning a crusade of his own or in fact a pilgrimage, as he wanted to fulfil a vow made by his dead brother Philip to go to the Holy Land.
It is probable that Louis had made this decision independently of hearing about Quantum Praedecessores. In any case, Abbot Suger and other nobles were not in favour of Louis's plans, as he would be gone from the kingdom for several years.
Louis consulted Bernard of Clairvauxwho referred him back to Eugene. By now Louis would have definitely heard about the papal bull, and Eugene enthusiastically supported Louis's crusade. The bull was reissued on 1 Marchand Eugene authorized Bernard to preach the news throughout France. Louis VII of Francehis wife, Eleanor of Aquitaineand the princes and lords present prostrated themselves at the feet of Bernard to receive the pilgrims' cross.
Bernard then passed into Germany, and the reported miracles which multiplied almost at his every step undoubtedly contributed to the success of his mission. As in the First Crusade, the preaching inadvertently led to attacks on Jews ; a fanatical French monk named Rudolf was apparently inspiring massacres of Jews in the RhinelandCologneMainzWorms and Speyerwith Rudolf claiming Jews were not contributing financially to the rescue of the Holy Land.
Bernard, the Archbishop of Cologne and the Archbishop of Mainz were vehemently opposed to these attacks, and so Bernard traveled from Flanders to Germany to deal with the problem and quiet the mobs.
Bernard then found Rudolf in Mainz and was able to silence him, returning him to his monastery. The north German Saxons were reluctant.
Approving of the Saxons' plan, Eugenius issued a papal bull known as the Divina dispensatione on 13 April. This bull stated that there was to be no difference between the spiritual rewards of the different crusaders.
Those who volunteered to crusade against the pagan Slavs were primarily DanesSaxons and Poles although there were also some Bohemians.
The campaign itself was led by Saxon families such as the AscaniansWettin and Schauenburgers. After expelling the Obodrites from Christian territory, the crusaders targeted the Obodrite fort at Dobin and the Liutizian fort at Demmin.
When some crusaders advocated ravaging the countryside, others objected by asking, "Is not the land we are devastating our land, and the people we are fighting our people? After an unsuccessful siege of Demmin, a contingent of crusaders was diverted by the margraves to attack Pomerania instead.
According to Bernard of Clairvaux, the goal of the crusade was to battle the pagan Slavs "until such a time as, by God's help, they shall either be converted or deleted".
The Saxons achieved largely token conversions at Dobin, as the Slavs resorted to their pagan beliefs once the Christian armies dispersed.Transformations in Shipbuilding. That day in France, Pope Urban launched more than a religious war, however.
During the two centuries that the eight Crusades would last, a radical transformation in world exploration, cross-cultural exchange and trade occurred. For the knights of the First Crusade, the culmination of the expedition came with the capture of Jerusalem in For Emperor Alexios, it came nine years later with the Treaty of Diabolis.
The Crusader army had helped Byzantium to recover Nicaea and the coast of Asia Minor. The Crusades were military expeditions of Christian Europe in the 12th and 13th centuries for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Muslim Turks.
They included the following: First Crusade, The word “crusade” comes from the Latin word crux meaning cross. “To take up the cross” meant to become a crusader.
To identify themselves, crusaders sewed symbols of the cross of Christ onto their clothing and painted crosses onto their shields. May 03, · Before you ask, no, he doesn't cover the Children's Crusade, in which children were provoked to gather for a Crusade, and then promptly sold into slavery by the organizers of said Crusade.
Cause Effect The cause of the first Christian Crusade was mainly because of the Muslim Turks invading and taking over the Holy Land. Christians within Europe couldn't enter the Holy Land anymore, so they started to support the Crusades.