Proscriptive and prescriptive literature formed a discourse of ideal fathers, priests, courtiers, and warriors, and these ideals were then reified in fictional texts as well as in pigment and marble. Such textual and artistic ideals of masculinity were by nature not obtainable by real men, a matter that was the cause of a gender anxiety that has received much scholarly attention. Furthermore, masculinity in the Renaissance was frequently discussed in contrast to its negative effect, effeminacy.
|RENAISSANCE VS REFORMATION | politicworm||Renaissance Art and Literature The Renaissance began after the plague in the 14th and 15th centuries and was fueled by soldiers returning from the Crusades.|
Beginning in the 12th to 14th centuries, first one, then the other, swept through Europe, changing manners and morals, governments and cultures, as they went. The Renaissance While Northern and Western Europe were experiencing what historians call the Dark Ages dark only to them because so little information from that period has survivedthe Middle East was having its great Renaissance of learning and of scientific and technological advance based on the civilizations of China and India.
For several centuries, from as early as the Crusades, learning and technological progress moved in waves from the eastern end of the Mediterranean to its westernmost outpost in Southern Spain, across the Pyrenees and along the coast into southern France, and, more directly, up the Adriatic to Venice.
By the fifteenth century, once heavily guarded secrets of astronomy, astrology, mathematics al gebrachemistry al chemyglassmaking, tempered steel, distilling of perfumes, sugar al zukarand alcohol al kohlthe manufacture of silk and cotton al godonprinting and papermaking, made their way to the West.
These, along with the philosophy, artistry and wisdom of the ancient Greeks and Romans, that had been preserved in Arabic, were translated back into Latin by Spanish and Italian scholars of the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries.
The irony is that by the time the Renaissance reached England, the Reformation had already established a very different cultural climate, one the Renaissance had not had to deal with in sunny Italy and southern France.
The Reformation The Italian Renaissance, or rebirth of the knowledge of the ancient The renaissance versus the reformation of Greece, Rome, Alexandria and Damascus, in Italian forms, had been fostered by the great banking families of Venice and Florence, the princes and princesses of the Medici, the Este, the Gonzaga, who patronized scholars, scientists, artists, architects, translators and poets, whose interpretations followed the beliefs and iconography of the Catholic Church.
But the wealth and prestige this flowering brought to the Church and to Italy also, inevitably, brought corruption and decadence in its wake. So by the early years of the 16th century, a movement had began to arise within the colder northern and western regions of European Catholicism to purify the Church and bring it more in line with its early beliefs and practices.
The chief promoter of this process was the great pan-European scholar Desiderius Erasmuswhose translation of the Greek New Testament into Latin launched a movement towards much more rigorous scholarly investigations of religious and historical truths.
With the caveat that generalizations are intellectually dangerous, the Renaissance can be seen as the warmly enthusiastic artistic aspect of this uprush of civilization, with the Reformation as its cooler, more intellectual side.
It ran into resistance in the southern nations, many still Catholic to this day, where it manifested as a similar campaign launched from within by the Jesuits. And whether for good or ill, it reached England, the westernmost outpost of European culture, before the Renaissance had had a chance to really take hold, so that, uniquely, the version of the Renaissance that England experienced in the mid-to-late 16th century was different in a number of ways from that experienced by the nations on the Continent.
For one thing, the Reformation may have started as a religious movement, but its success was largely due to the fact that it was adopted and perpetuated by a rising community of educated tradesmen of the sort that had brought the Renaissance to Italy two centuries earlier, and that now needed a similar movement to bring them to power in the north.
By attacking the evils of the Church, this rising tide of essentially middle class entrepreneurs was empowered to take the great wealth of the Church for itself, breaking up the monasteries and friaries, using the stone to build themselves grand new houses, and the surrounding fields to provide them with sheep for wool and meat and the woods for timber to build ships.
The suffering arts All movements have their radical proponents. Today most of us know the Italian Renaissance primarily for the art it produced. A small portion of this, meant for private use, was devoted to pagan themes and to portraiture while the great public works, the murals, paintings, and statues created for the great churches and cathedrals, were all aimed at reinforcing belief in the tenets of Catholicism.
It frowned upon the paintings and statues of half-naked saints like Sebastian and Mary Magdalene, created more for their sexual beauty than any religious significance.
It often saw the great works of ancient Greek and Roman literature solely in the light of their pagan origins. All this culture was totally at odds with the reformers passionate urge to return to the purity of the early Church and the piety of its saintly creators. So when the Renaissance finally reached the hearts and minds of the English, beginning with the reigns of Henry VIII and his daughter Mary Tudor and building silently during the reigns of Edward VI and the early years of Elizabeth, finding no support for pictorial art, statuary or architecture, it found its path through music and drama.
For the first and only time in European history until the Beatles and the StonesEnglish composers led the Continent. And unlike in Italy and France, where the Renaissance bloomed in pictorial art and archtecture, all the rest of its artistic energies were channelled into literature, specifically into drama where poetry was harnessed utilized, as per the Reformation demand for usefulness into bringing historical figures to life and English sympathies into a nationalism that could withstand the dangerous charms of the ancient Faith.
Yet even the Stage was attacked by the Church and the conservative City fathers, as something dangerously pagan in nature, something that kept people from going to church. It was in this climate that the great Shakespeare not only emerged, but flourished, something he simply could not have done had he and his patrons and actors allowed the truth about his identity to escape to a broader public awareness.
Had he done so, his fate would have been more like that of Christopher Marlowe.The primary difference between the Reformation and the Renaissance was that the Reformation focused on a religious revolution, while the Renaissance focused on an intellectual revolution.
The Reformation came about in order to correct what many felt were the "faults" of the Catholic Church, leading.
Renaissance vs Reformation essays It is clear and evident that during the Renaissance and the Reformation period, many changes and modification were made in the area of religion. The Catholic religion was fairly unstable and as a result new religious groups beliefs were formed.
However, there were s. The Renaissance versus the Reformation "I feel, sometimes, as the Renaissance man must have felt in finding new riches at every point and in the certainty that unexplored areas of knowledge and experience await at every turn"Ð'--Polykarp Kusch.4/4(1).
Jan 09, · The Renaissance was a cultural and intellectual movement that peaked during the 15 th and 16 th centuries, though most historians would agree that it really began in the 14 th, with antecedents.
The Renaissance versus the Reformation "I feel, sometimes, as the Renaissance man must have felt in finding new riches at every point and in the certainty that unexplored areas of knowledge and experience await at every turn" Polykarp Kusch.
Renaissance vs Reformation essays It is clear and evident that during the Renaissance and the Reformation period, many changes and modification were made in the area of religion.
The Catholic religion was fairly unstable and as a result new religious .