One day I decided to take my wife and children for a visit to the Tolerance Museum in Los Angeles California, the end result that it was proven to us, beyond any doubt, that we are ALL prejudiced. Today I am of the opinion that people in general are not truth seekers, since most people constantly try to fit the facts to match their wishes. Theology has been used by many; the KKK have found in the Bible reasons to hate black and Jew, the Pogroms found in the Bible reasons to commit atrocities towards the Jew, and even schemers are seen daily on TV using the Bible like the old medicine man, offering healing, signs, and wonders. I believe that most convictions have nothing to do whatsoever with facts, the truth is, we are driven by culture and upbringing.
Frictions[ edit ] Some Indians were upset with what they saw as the draconian rule of the Company who had embarked on a project of territorial expansion and westernisation that was imposed without any regard for historical subtleties in Indian society.
Furthermore, legal changes introduced by the British were accompanied by prohibitions on Indian religious customs and were seen as steps towards forced conversion to Christianity.
He also passed decrees allowing Hindus who had converted to Christianity to be able to inherit property, which had previously been denied by local practice. Christian organisations from Britain had additionally created "unattached" mission stations across India in the decade preceding the rebellion.
For instance, once the rebellion was underway, Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar met the sepoys on May 11,he was told: Chaman Lal, were killed. As further evidence, he observes that the Urdu sources of the pre- and post-rebellion periods usually refer to the British not as angrez the Englishgoras whites or firangis foreignersbut as kafir disbeliever and nasrani Christians.
This included an increase in the taxation on land. This seems to have been a very important reason for the spread of the rebellion, keeping in view the speed at which the conflagration ignited in many villages in northern India where farmers rushed to get back their unfairly grabbed title deeds.
The resumption of tax free land and confiscation of jagirs the grant or right to locally control land revenue caused discontent among the jagirdars and zamindars. Dalhousie had also appointed Inam Commission with powers to confiscate land. He also resumed the practice of tax free lands in some areas.
These changes caused widespread resentment not only among the landed aristocracy but also caused great havoc to a larger section of the middle-class people. Lands were confiscated from the landlords and auctioned. Rich people like the merchants and moneylenders were therefore able to speculate in British land sales and drive out the most vulnerable peasant farmers.
The Company had an unbroken series of victories in India, against the Marathas, Mysore, north Indian states, and the Gurkhas, later against the Sikhs, and further afield in China and Burma. The Company had developed a military organisation where, in theory, fealty of the sepoys to the Company was considered the height of "izzat" or honour, where the European officer replaced the village headman with benevolent figures of authority, and where regiments were mostly recruited from sepoys belonging to the same caste, and community.
The soldiers performed well on the field of battle in exchange for which they were rewarded with symbolic heraldic rewards such as battle honours in addition to the extra pay or "batta" foreign pay routinely disbursed for operations committed beyond the established borders of Company rule.
When the mood of the sepoys turned against their masters, they remembered Kabul and that the British were not invincible. Partly owing to this, Bengal sepoys were not subject to the penalty of flogging as were the European soldiers. This meant that when they came to be threatened by modernising regimes in Calcutta, from the s onwards, the sepoys had become accustomed to very high ritual status, and were extremely sensitive to suggestions that their caste might be polluted.
Inthere was another mutiny by a regiment ordered overseas in the First Anglo-Burmese Warwho were refused transport to carry individual cooking vessels and told to share communal pots.
Eleven of the sepoys were executed and hundreds more sentenced to hard labour. Since the batta made the difference between active service being considered munificent or burdensome, the sepoys repeatedly resented and actively opposed inconsiderate unilateral changes in pay and batta ordered by the Military Audit department.
Prior to the period of British rule, any refusal to proceed on service until pay issues were resolved was considered a legitimate form of displaying grievance by Indian troops serving under Indian rulers.
Such measures were considered a valid negotiating tactic by the sepoys, likely to be repeated every time such issues arose. In contrast to their Indian predecessors, the British considered such refusals at times to be outright "mutinies" and therefore to be suppressed brutally.
The varying stances of the British government, the reduction of allowances and harsh punishments, contributed to a feeling amongst the troops that the Company no longer cared for them.
Certain actions of the government, such as increased recruitment of Sikhs and Gurkhas, peoples considered by the Bengal sepoys to be inferior in caste to them, increased the distrust of the sepoys who thought that this was a sign of their services not being needed any more.
The transfer of the number 66th which was taken away from a regular Bengal sepoy regiment of the line disbanded over refusal to serve without batta, and given to a Gurkha battalion, was considered by the sepoys as a breach of faith by the Company. Later, the attitudes of British officers changed with increased intolerance, lack of involvement and unconcern of the welfare of troops becoming manifest more and more.
Sympathetic rulers, such as Lord William Bentinck were replaced by arrogant aristocrats, such as Lord Dalhousie, who despised the troops and the populace. As time passed, the powers of the commanding officers reduced and the government became more unfeeling or distant from the concerns of the sepoys.
Wheler of the 34th Bengal Infantry had taken to preaching to their Sepoys in the hope of converting them to Christianity. The serving high-caste sepoys were fearful that this requirement would be eventually extended to them, violating observance of the Kala Pani prohibition on sea travel.Hitler, NOT Gandhi, Should Be Given Credit for the Independence of India in Mukherjee, R.
(). Satan Let Loose upon Earth: The Kanpur Massacres in India in the Revolt of Past and Present. (8): English, B. (). The Kanpur Massacres in India in the Revolt of Past and Present.
(2): Hebert, C. (). The Great Mutiny in India. London: Viking. Mukherjee, R. (). There were many causes for Muslim conquest but the major reason was the spread of Islam.
The Muslim dominated Kabul, the Punjab, and Sind, before intruding in to India. The Indian Rebellion of was a major uprising in India during –58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
  The event is known by many names, including the Sepoy Mutiny, the Indian Mutiny, the Great Rebellion, the Revolt of , the Indian Insurrection, and India's First War of Independence.
Indian Rebellion of or revolt of ; The Indian Rebellion of is also called the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, North India's First War of Independence or North India's first struggle for independence. This was because Muslims believe that pigs are unclean.
Naturally, the revival of Mughal power was a great motivator for Muslims, who widely participated in the revolt of A lot of people sincerely believed that the British replaced the Mughals and thus, they were attracted to the cause and strongly supported it.